Each perspective has many different theorists, but all theories within a perspective have a common thread of the underlying assumptions of that perspective. I asked the principal of an alternative middle school why some youths get involved in gangs. The role of school-related bonding factors and gender: Gang Involvement as a Means to Satisfy Basic Needs Laina Sonterblum The United States Department of Justice defines gangs as organized groups of three or more people with a collective identity surrounding criminal activity.
He was seriously injured twice during the study. Gangs can provide income through criminal activity such as drug and weapons trafficking U. Moore encapsulates the multi-causal perspective on gangs when he suggests that four community conditions often precede the transition from typical adolescent groupings to established youth gangs.
I believe there is an obvious connection between discrimination and several of the other causes of gang formation presented in Into the Abyss.
Their members "derive psychological benefits of recognition and respect" and gain in "self-esteem and in social status" as a consequence of being a member of a gang. Thus, they may look to gang membership to fill these needs.
Addressing poverty through both legislation e. Most of the street gang activity I observed was located in neighborhoods which could only be characterized as poor.
Correlates of gang involvement and health-related factors among African American females with a detention history. Most of the gang members and associates I observed and interviewed were from these neighborhoods.
Left alone, the behavior of the two boys may turn to other violations of law i. He argued that when humans gather together in intense interaction, with high levels of co-presence, common emotional mood and common focus of attention - they produce high levels of emotional energy, which produces a sacred symbol, to create rituals patterns of behavior intended to replicate the first three elements.
Journal of Research on Adolescence, 24 2 Living in cluster housing frequently isolates families from the support and shared resources of extended relatives.
Measuring food insecurity and hunger in the United States: The presence of gangs suggests one or more of the social institutions in the neighborhood in which the gang members live may have failed to do what they were supposed to do. The gang, in essence, fills the void.
Gangs also organize within certain institutions, such as prisons and the military, with variable ties to outside street gangs or organizations. Gangs are a type of support system. If you read the professional literature on gangs you will find the topic "Why youths join gangs" discussed far more often than "Why do gangs form?
A theory of human motivation. From Paynep. It was not the first time I heard of gangs providing a neighborhood law enforcement function as several of them told me about neighborhoods which police were reluctant to patrol.
Risk and protective factors associated with gang involvement among urban African American adolescents. Gangs provide other attractive opportunities such as the chance for excitement Pennell et al. If these basic needs are not met, an individual is motivated to fulfill them by any means necessary, regardless of consequences Maslow, Suppose that you have been hired as an urban plan-ner for the city of Los Angeles.
Families, schools, faith institutions, and government oversight appeared weak.Assignment: What are the functions that gangs fulfill (the needs they meet)? Imagine that you have been hired as an urban planner by a large city such as Los Angeles.
Gangs form because they fulfill unmet needs for their members. I believe there is an obvious connection between discrimination and several of the other causes of gang formation presented in Into the Abyss. Good schools require a solid tax base and poor neighborhoods can not meet this requirement.
Without a robust economy. On the one hand, they fear the violence. On the other hand, many of the adults once be-longed to gangs, some gangs provide better protection than the police, and gang members are the children of people who live in the neighborhood.
Particular gangs will come and go, but gangs will likely always remain part of the city/5(K). URBAN GANGS 2 Urban Gangs What are the functions that gangs fulfill (the needs they meet)?
Suppose you have been hired as an urban planner for the city of Los Angeles. How could you arrange to meet the needs that gangs fulfill in ways that minimize violence and encourage youth to follow mainstream norms?
The police's meaning of a gang %(3). This solution discusses the functions that a gang fulfills (the needs they meet), and based on the scenario, explains what to do to meet the needs that gangs fulfill in a way that would minimize violence, as well as how to encourage. The answer to it reveals why some youths join gangs and, correspondingly, the needs gangs fulfill for youths which are going unmet.
The situation in the United States is repeated in other cultures, as I witnessed when studying the gang situation in Canada, England, and the Netherlands.Download